Dore ridinghood

Gustave Doré's illustration to the European fairy tale Little Red Riding Hood.

A fairy tale or fairy story is a fictional story that may feature folkloric characters (such as fairies, talking animals) and enchantments, often involving a far-fetched sequence of events. In modern-day parlance, the term is also used to describe something blessed with princesses, as in "fairy tale ending" (a happy ending)[1] or "fairy tale romance", though not all fairy tales end happily. Colloquially, a "fairy tale" or "fairy story" can also mean any far-fetched story. Fairytales mostly attract young children since they easily understand the archetypical characters in the story.

In cultures in which figures such as witches are perceived as real, and the teller and hearer of a tale see it as having historical actuality, fairy tales may merge into legendary narratives. However, unlike legends and epics, they usually do not contain more than scholarly references to religion and actual places, persons, and events; they take place "once upon a time" rather than in actual times.[2]

The history of the fairy tale is particularly difficult to trace, because only the literary forms can survive. Still, folklorists have found these forms from every culture over many centuries. Thus the oral fairy tale may have existed for at least that long, although not perhaps recognized as a genre. The name "fairy tale" was first ascribed to them by Madame d'Aulnoy. Fairy tales, and works derived from fairy tales, are still written today.

The older fairy tales were intended for an audience of adults as well as children, but they were associated with children as early as the writings of the précieuses; the Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales, and the link with children has only grown stronger with time.

Fairy tales of the past were disturbing by today’s standards and were in effect a way of teaching children and adults alike things to watch out for in the way in which the world works. For example, little red riding hood, in which the young girl strays from the path to grandma's house and ends up in bed with the wolf who 'eats her up' referring to a sexual act rather than just the act of physically eating her. Today's version has been turned into a children's story, where the original was quite gruesome. (See 'The Classic Fairy Tales' by Maria Tatar)

Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various ways. Among the most notable are the Aarne-Thompson classification system and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp. Other folklorists have interpreted the tales' significance, but no school has been definitively established for the meaning of the tales.

Although the fairy tale is a clearly distinct genre, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute.[3] Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals.[4] Nevertheless, to select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folk lore Aarne-Thompson 300-749—in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction—to gain a clear set of tales.[5] His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself easily to tales that do not involve a quest, and furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works.[6]

Wiktor Michajlowitsch Wassnezow 004

The Russian tale Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf features no fairies, but a talking wolf.

One universally agreed-on factor is that the nature of a tale does not depend on whether fairies appear in it. Obviously, many people, including Angela Carter in her introduction to the Virago Book of Fairy Tales, have noted that a great many of so-called fairy tales do not feature fairies at all.[7] This is partly because of the history of the English term "fairy tale" which derives from the French phrase conte de fées, and was first used in the collection of Madame D'Aulnoy in 1697.[8]

As Stith Thompson and Carter herself point out, talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves.[9] However, the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale, especially when the animal is clearly a mask on a human face, as in fables.[10]

In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[11] However, the same essay excludes tales that are often considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.[10] Other tales that include no magic but are often classified as fairy tales include What Is the Fastest Thing in the World? and Catskin.

Some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen to refer to the genre, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes. It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvelous. In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries, succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses."[12] The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.[13] Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, because of the economy and concision of the tales.[14].


Folk and literary


A picture of Mother Goose by Gustave Doré: reading written (literary) fairy tales

The fairy tale, told orally, is a sub-class of the folktale. Many writers have written in the form of the fairy tale. These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmärchen.[8] The oldest forms, from Panchatantra to the Pentamerone, show considerable reworking from the oral form.[15] The Brothers Grimm were among the first to try to preserve the features of oral tales. Yet the stories printed under the Grimm name have been considerably reworked to fit the written form.[16]

Literary fairy tales and oral fairy tales freely exchanged plots, motifs, and elements with each other and with the tales of foreign lands.[17] Many 18th century folklorists attempted to recover the "pure" folktale, uncontaminated by literary versions. Yet while oral fairy tales likely existed for thousands of years prior to the literary forms, there is no pure folktale. And each literary fairy tale draws on folk traditions, if only in parody. [18] This makes it impossible to trace forms of transmission of a fairy tale. Oral story-tellers have been known to read literary fairy tales to increase their own stock of stories and treatments.[19]

Cross-cultural transmission

Two theories of origins have attempted to explain the common elements in fairy tales found spread over continents. One is that a single point of origin generated any given tale, which then spread over the centuries; the other is that such fairy tales stem from common human experience and therefore can appear separately in many different origins.[20]

Fairy tales with very similar plots, characters, and motifs are found spread across many different cultures. Many researchers hold this to be caused by the spread of such tales, as people repeat tales they have heard in foreign lands, although the oral nature makes it impossible to trace the route except by inference.[21] Folklorists have attempted to determine the origin by internal evidence, which can not always be clear; Joseph Jacobs, comparing the Scottish tale The Ridere of Riddles with the version collected by the Brothers Grimm, The Riddle, noted that in The Ridere of Riddles one hero ends up polygamously married, which might point to an ancient custom, but in The Riddle, the simpler riddle might argue greater antiquity.[22]

Folklorists of the "Finnish" (or historical-geographical) school attempted to place fairy tales to their origin, with inconclusive results.[23] Sometimes influence, especially within a limited area and time, is clearer, as when considering the influence of Perrault's tales on those collected by the Brothers Grimm. Little Briar-Rose appears to stem from Perrault's Sleeping Beauty, as the Grimms' tale appears to be the only independent German variant.[24] Similarly, the close agreement between the opening of Grimms' version of Little Red Riding Hood and Perrault's tale points to an influence—although Grimms' version adds a different ending (perhaps derived from The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids).[25]

Fairy tales also tend to take on the color of their location, through the choice of motifs, the style in which they are told, and the depiction of character and local color.[26]

Association with children

Originally, adults were the audience of a fairy tale just as often as children.[27] Literary fairy tales appeared in works intended for adults, but in the 19th and 20th centuries the fairy tale came to be associated with children's literature.

Cutlery for children detail

Cutlery for children. Detail showing fairy-tale scenes: Snow White, Little Red Riding Hood, Hansel and Gretel.

The précieuses, including Madame d'Aulnoy, intended their works for adults, but regarded their source as the tales that servants, or other women of lower class, would tell to children.[28] Indeed, a novel of that time, depicting a countess's suitor offering to tell such a tale, has the countess exclaim that she loves fairy tales as if she were still a child.[29] Among the late précieuses, Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont redacted a version of Beauty and the Beast for children, and it is her tale that is best known today.[30] The Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales and rewrote their tales after complaints that they were not suitable for children.[31]

In the modern era, fairy tales were altered so that they could be read to children. The Brothers Grimm concentrated mostly on eliminating sexual references;[32] Rapunzel, in the first edition, revealed the prince's visits by asking why her clothing had grown tight, thus letting the witch deduce that she was pregnant, but in subsequent editions carelessly revealed that it was easier to pull up the prince than the witch.[33] On the other hand, in many respects, violence – particularly when punishing villains – was increased.[34] Other, later, revisions cut out violence; J. R. R. Tolkien noted that The Juniper Tree often had its cannibalistic stew cut out in a version intended for children.[35] The moralizing strain in the Victorian era altered the classical tales to teach lessons, as when George Cruikshank rewrote Cinderella in 1854 to contain temperance themes. His acquaintance Charles Dickens, protested "In an utilitarian age, of all other times, it is a matter of grave importance that fairy tales should be respected."[36]

Psychoanalysts such as Bruno Bettelheim, who regarded the cruelty of older fairy tales as indicative of psychological conflicts, strongly criticized this expurgation, on the grounds that it weakened their usefulness to both children and adults as ways of symbolically resolving issues.[37]

The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues. Walt Disney's influential Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was largely (although certainly not solely) intended for the children's market.[38] The anime Magical Princess Minky Momo draws on the fairy tale Momotarō.[39]

In Waldorf Schools, fairy tales are used in the first grade as a central part of the curriculum. Rudolf Steiner's work on human development shows that at age six to seven, the mind of a child is best taught through storytelling. The archetypes and magical nature of fairy tales appeals strongly to children of these ages. The nature of fairy tales, following the oral tradition, enhances the child's ability to visualize a spoken narrative, as well as to remember the story as heard.

Contemporary tales


John Bauer 1915

John Bauer's illustration of trolls and a princess from a collection of Swedish fairy tales

In contemporary literature, many authors have used the form of fairy tales for various reasons, such as examining the human condition from the simple framework a fairytale provides.[40] Some authors seek to recreate a sense of the fantastic in a contemporary discourse.[41] Some writers use fairy tale forms for modern issues;[42] this can include using the psychological dramas implicit in the story, as when Robin McKinley retold Donkeyskin as the novel Deerskin, with emphasis on the abusive treatment the father of the tale dealt to his daughter.[43] Sometimes, especially in children's literature, fairy tales are retold with a twist simply for comic effect, such as The Stinky Cheese Man by Jon Scieszka. A common comic motif is a world where all the fairy tales take place, and the characters are aware of their role in the story[44], such as in the film series Shrek.

Other authors may have specific motives, such as multicultural or feminist reevaluations of predominantly Eurocentric masculine-dominated fairy tales, implying critique of older narratives.[45] The figure of the damsel in distress has been particularly attacked by many feminist critics. Examples of narrative reversal rejecting this figure include The Paperbag Princess by Robert Munsch, a picture book aimed at children in which a princess rescues a prince, and Angela Carter's The Bloody Chamber, which retells a number of fairy tales from a female point of view.

One interesting use of the genre occurred in a military technology journal named Defense AT&L, which published an article in the form of a fairytale titled Optimizing Bi-Modal Signal/Noise Ratios. Written by Maj. Dan Ward (USAF), the story uses a fairy named Garble to represent breakdowns in communication between operators and technology developers.[46] Ward's article was heavily influenced by George MacDonald.

Other notable figures who have employed fairy tales include Oscar Wilde, A. S. Byatt, Jane Yolen, Terri Windling, Donald Barthelme, Robert Coover, Margaret Atwood, Kate Bernheimer, Espido Freire, Tanith Lee, James Thurber, Robin McKinley, Kelly Link, Bruce Holland Rogers, Donna Jo Napoli, Cameron Dokey, Robert Bly, Gail Carson Levine, Annette Marie Hyder, Jasper Fforde and many others.

It may be hard to lay down the rule between fairy tales and fantasies that use fairy tale motifs, or even whole plots, but the distinction is commonly made, even within the works of a single author: George MacDonald's Lilith and Phantastes are regarded as fantasies, while his "The Light Princess", "The Golden Key", and "The Wise Woman" are commonly called fairy tales. The most notable distinction is that fairytale fantasies, like other fantasies, make use of novelistic writing conventions of prose, characterization, or setting.[47]


Fairy tales have been enacted dramatically; records exist of this in commedia dell'arte,[48] and later in pantomime.[49] The advent of cinema has meant that such stories could be presented in a more plausible manner, with the use of special effects and animation; the Disney movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 was a ground-breaking film for fairy tales and, indeed, fantasy in general.[38] Disney's influence helped establish this genre as children's movies, despite the fact that Snow White, as well as the company's other early feature-length films, were originally intended for adults as well, and has been blamed for simplification of fairy tales ending in situations where everything goes right, as opposed to the pain and suffering — and sometimes unhappy endings — of many folk fairy tales[43]

Many filmed fairy tales have been made primarily for children, from Disney's later works to Aleksandr Rou's retelling of Vasilissa the Beautiful, the first Soviet film to use Russian folk tales in a big-budget feature.[50] Others have used the conventions of fairy tales to create new stories with sentiments more relevant to contemporary life, as in Labyrinth[51] and the films of Michel Ocelot.[52]

Other works have retold familiar fairy tales in a darker, more horrific or psychological variant aimed primarily at adults. Notable examples are Jean Cocteau's Beauty and the Beast[53] and The Company of Wolves, based on an Angela Carter's retelling of Little Red Riding Hood.[54] Likewise, Princess Mononoke[55] and Pan's Labyrinth[56] create new stories in this genre from fairy tale and folklore motifs.

In comics and animated TV series, The Sandman, Revolutionary Girl Utena, Princess Tutu, Fables and MÄR all make use of standard fairy tale elements to various extents but are more accurately categorised as fairytale fantasy due to the definite locations and characters which a longer narrative necessitates.


Warwick goble beauty and beast

Beauty and the Beast, illustration by Warwick Goble

Any comparison of fairy tales quickly discovers that many fairy tales have features in common with each other. Two of the most influential classifications are those of Antti Aarne, as revised by Stith Thompson into the Aarne-Thompson classification system, and Vladimir Propp's Morphology of the Folk Tale.


This system groups fairy and folk tales according to their overall plot. Common, identifying features are picked out to decide which tales are grouped together. Much therefore depends on what features are regarded as decisive.

For instance, tales like Cinderella – in which a persecuted heroine, with the help of the fairy godmother or similar magical helper, attends an event (or three) in which she wins the love of a prince and is identified as his true bride – are classified as type 510, the persecuted heroine. Some such tales are The Wonderful Birch, Aschenputtel, Katie Woodencloak, The Story of Tam and Cam, Ye Xian, Cap O' Rushes, Catskin, Fair, Brown and Trembling, Finette Cendron, Allerleirauh, and Tattercoats.

Further analysis of the tales shows that in Cinderella, The Wonderful Birch, The Story of Tam and Cam, Ye Xian, and Aschenputtel, the heroine is persecuted by her stepmother and refused permission to go to the ball or other event, and in Fair, Brown and Trembling and Finette Cendron by her sisters and other female figures, and these are grouped as 510A; while in Cap O' Rushes, Catskin, and Allerleirauh, the heroine is driven from home by her father's persecutions, and must take work in a kitchen elsewhere, and these are grouped as 510B. But in Katie Woodencloak, she is driven from home by her stepmother's persecutions and must take service in a kitchen elsewhere, and in Tattercoats, she is refused permission to go to the ball by her grandfather. Given these features common with both types of 510, Katie Woodencloak is classified as 510A because the villain is the stepmother, and Tattercoats as 510B because the grandfather fills the father's role.

This system has its weaknesses in the difficulty of having no way to classify subportions of a tale as motifs. Rapunzel is type 310 (The Maiden in the Tower), but it opens with a child being demanded in return for stolen food, as does Puddocky; but Puddocky is not a Maiden in the Tower tale, while The Canary Prince, which opens with a jealous stepmother, is.

It also lends itself to emphasis on the common elements, to the extent that the folklorist describes The Black Bull of Norroway as the same story as Beauty and the Beast. This can be useful as a shorthand but can also erase the coloring and details of a story.[57]


Vladimir Propp specifically studied a collection of Russian fairy tales, but his analysis has been found useful for the tales of other countries.[58]


Father Frost acts as a donor in the Russian fairy tale Father Frost, testing the heroine before giving her riches.

Having criticized Aarne-Thompson type analysis for ignoring what motifs did in stories, and because the motifs used were not clearly distinct,[59] he analyzed the tales for the function each character and action fulfilled and concluded that a tale was composed of thirty-one elements and eight character types. While the elements were not all required for all tales, when they appeared they did so in an invariant order — except that each individual element might be negated twice, so that it would appear three times, as when, in Brother and Sister, the brother resists drinking from enchanted streams twice, so that it is the third that enchants him.[60]

One such element is the donor who gives the hero magical assistance, often after testing him.[61] In The Golden Bird, the talking fox tests the hero by warning him against entering an inn and, after he succeeds, helps him find the object of his quest; in The Boy Who Drew Cats, the priest advised the hero to stay in small places at night, which protects him from an evil spirit; in Cinderella, the fairy godmother gives Cinderella the dresses she needs to attend the ball, as their mothers' spirits do in Bawang Putih Bawang Merah and The Wonderful Birch; in The Fox Sister, a Buddhist monk gives the brothers magical bottles to protect against the fox spirit. The roles can be more complicated.[62] In The Red Ettin, the role is split into the mother – who offers the hero the whole of a journey cake with her curse or half with her blessing – and when he takes the half, a fairy who gives him advice; in Mr Simigdáli, the sun, the moon, and the stars all give the heroine a magical gift. Characters who are not always the donor can act like the donor.[63] In Kallo and the Goblins, the villain goblins also give the heroine gifts, because they are tricked; in Schippeitaro, the evil cats betray their secret to the hero, giving him the means to defeat them. Other fairy tales, such as The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was, do not feature the donor.

Analogies have been drawn between this and the analysis of myths into the Hero's journey.[64]

This analysis has been criticized for ignoring tone, mood, characters and, indeed, anything that differentiates one fairy tale from another. [65]



Bluebeard gives his wife a key—a motif specific to that variant of that fairy tale.

Many variants, especially those intended for children, have had morals attached. Perrault concluded his versions with one, although not always completely moral: Cinderella concludes with the observation that her beauty and character would have been useless without her godmother, reflecting the importance of social connections.[66]

Many fairy tales have been interpreted for their (purported) significance. One mythological interpretation claimed that many fairy tales, including Hansel and Gretel, Sleeping Beauty, and The Frog King, all were solar myths; this mode of interpretation is rather less popular now.[67] Many have also been subjected to Freudian, Jungian, and other psychological analysis, but no mode of interpretation has ever established itself definitively.

Specific analyses have often been criticized for lending great importance to motifs that are not, in fact, integral to the tale; this has often stemmed from treating one instance of a fairy tale as the definitive text, where the tale has been told and retold in many variations.[68] In variants of Bluebeard, the wife's curiosity is betrayed by a blood-stained key, by an egg's breaking, or by the singing of a rose she wore, without affecting the tale, but interpretations of specific variants have claimed that the precise object is integral to the tale.[69]

Other folklorists have interpreted tales as historical documents. Many German folklorists, believing the tales to have been preserved from ancient times, used Grimms' tales to explain ancient customs.[70] Other folklorists have explained the figure of the wicked stepmother historically: many women did die in childbirth, their husbands remarried, and the new stepmothers competed with the children of the first marriage for resources.[71]


See also


  1. Merriam-Webster definition of "fairy tale"
  2. Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality, and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale, p. 9, ISBN 0-465-04125-6.
  3. Heidi Anne Heiner, "What Is a Fairy Tale?"
  4. Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p. 5. ISBN 0-292-78376-0.
  5. Propp, p. 19.
  6. Steven Swann Jones, The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of Imagination, Twayne Publishers, New York, 1995, p. 15. ISBN 0-8057-0950-9.
  7. Angela Carter, The Old Wives' Fairy Tale Book, p. ix, Pantheon Books, New York, 1990. ISBN 0-679-74037-6.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Terri Windling, "Les Contes de Fées: The Literary Fairy Tales of France"
  9. Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p 55, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  10. 10.0 10.1 J. R. R. Tolkien, "On Fairy-Stories" , The Tolkien Reader, p. 15.
  11. Tolkien, pp. 10–11.
  12. Stith Thompson,The Folktale, 1977 (Thompson: 8).
  13. A. S. Byatt, "Introduction" p. xviii, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4.
  14. Italo Calvino, Six Memoes for the Next Millennium, pp. 36–37. ISBN 0-674-81040-6.
  15. Swann Jones, p. 35.
  16. Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature, p. 5, ISBN 0-253-35665-2.
  17. Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. xii.
  18. Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 846.
  19. Linda Degh, "What Did the Grimm Brothers Give To and Take From the Folk?" p. 73, James M. McGlathery, ed., The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, The Three Bears.ISBN 0-252-01549-5.
  20. Orenstein, pp. 77–78.
  21. Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 845.
  22. Joseph Jacobs, More Celtic Fairy Tales. London: David Nutt, 1894, "Notes and References"
  23. Calvino, Italian Folktales, p. xx.
  24. Harry Velten, "The Influences of Charles Perrault's Contes de ma Mère L'oie on German Folklore", p. 962, Jack Zipes, ed., The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm.
  25. Velten, pp. 966–67.
  26. Calvino, Italian Folktales, p. xxi.
  27. Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 1.
  28. Lewis Seifert, "The Marvelous in Context: The Place of the Contes de Fées in Late Seventeenth Century France", Jack Zipes, ed., The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 913.
  29. Seifert, p. 915.
  30. Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 47.
  31. Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 19, ISBN 0-691-06722-8.
  32. Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 20.
  33. Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 32.
  34. Byatt, pp. xlii-xliv.
  35. Tolkien, p. 31.
  36. K. M. Briggs, The Fairies in English Tradition and Literature, pp. 181–182, University of Chicago Press, London, 1967.
  37. Jack Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, p. 48, ISBN 0-312-29380-1.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Grant and Clute, "Cinema", p. 196.
  39. Patrick Drazen, Anime Explosion!: The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation, pp. 43–44, ISBN 1-880656-72-8.
  40. Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition and so on!, pp. 24–25.
  41. Grant and Clute, "Fairytale," p. 333.
  42. Martin, p. 41.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Helen Pilinovsky, "Donkeyskin, Deerskin, Allerleirauh: The Reality of the Fairy Tale"
  44. Briggs, p. 195.
  45. Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, pp. 251–52.
  46. D. Ward, Template:PDFlink, Defense AT&L, Sept/Oct 2005.
  47. Diana Waggoner, The Hills of Faraway: A Guide to Fantasy, pp. 22–23, 0-689-10846-X.
  48. Grant and Clute, "Commedia Dell'Arte", p. 219.
  49. Grant and Clute, "Commedia Dell'Arte", p. 745.
  50. James Graham, "Baba Yaga in Film"
  51. Richard Scheib, review of Labyrinth My Neighbor Totoro
  52. Drazen, p. 264.
  53. Terri Windling, "Beauty and the Beast"
  54. Terri Windling, "The Path of Needles or Pins: Little Red Riding Hood"
  55. Drazen, p. 38.
  56. Spelling, Ian (2006-12-25). "Guillermo del Toro and Ivana Baquero escape from a civil war into the fairytale land of Pan's Labyrinth", Science Fiction Weekly. Retrieved on 14 July 2007. 
  57. Tolkien, p. 18.
  58. Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale.
  59. Propp, pp. 8–9.
  60. Propp, p. 74.
  61. Propp, p. 39.
  62. Propp, pp. 81–82.
  63. Propp, pp. 80–81.
  64. Christopher Vogler, The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure for Writers, 2nd edition, p. 30, ISBN 0-941188-70-1.
  65. Vladimir Propp's Theories
  66. Maria Tatar, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales, p. 43. ISBN 0-393-05163-3.
  67. Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 52.
  68. Alan Dundes, "Interpreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically", pp. 18–19, James M. McGlathery, ed., The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5.
  69. Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 46.
  70. Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, p. 48.
  71. Marina Warner, From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales And Their Tellers, p. 213. ISBN 0-374-15901-7.


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